Series AR-AEHB

I was browsing through the Paris museum coin collection a few months back and noticed these fascinating coins with a total of seven different Roman Emperors spanning 123 years. I have searched the internet looking for more information but cannot seem to find any detailed essays about these coins. Most of you guys know that my interest in Aradian coinage is based more on pre-Imperial times. If anybody knows of a more detailed description of this type and is willing to share that knowledge i would very much appreciate their help. (Roman Emperors are not my strong point)
Could the reason this series came to a abrupt end have anything to do with the coin that followed, similar in many ways i.e Humped Bull but depicting Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Versus confronted on the obverse, replacing Astarte-Europe and Emperor (BMC Phoenicia Pg.48 No.379).

I have attributed these coins based on the information in BMC Phoenicia and Lindgren III.

Phoenicia, Arados (Various dates)

Obverse: Bust of Astarte-Europa right with laureate head of Emperor.

Reverse: Humped bull galloping left, head facing, Phoenician letter beneath bulls head, Aradian various era dates above, ΑΡΑΔΙWΝ (Arados) below.

Image description;

1: Augustus, era date 252 (8-7 B.C)
2: Tiberius, era date 284 (25-26 A.D)
3: Caligula, era date 297 (38-39 A.D)
4: Claudius, era date 307 (48-49 A.D)
5: Nero, era date 325 (66-67 A.D)
6: Domitian, era date 352 (93-94 A.D)
7: Trajan, era date 375 (116-117 A.D)
8: Coin i bought recently, also Trajan, era date 375.
9: Trajan, era date 365 (106-107 A.D), is there any particular reason why Trajan had these coins minted on two separate dates.

RPC I lists this type (galloping bull) as numbers:

4466, 4467, 4473, 4474, 4482 – 4486, 4488 & 4492, RPC II numbers for Arados are 2039 – 2043.

Thanks to CNG/BNF/ACS for imagery.


According to RPC I the countermarks on coin 1 (Caligula) and coin 2-3 (Claudius) are depicting Tyche. I suppose that yes there is a face on all three coins but i´m not convinced they are of the same deity. Any thoughts or ideas who the busts belong to if not Tyche ?
The countermarks i found that were not mentioned in RPC are of what appears to be a soldier/figure walking left holding spear, No.4 (Domitian) 5-6 (Trajan). Has anybody got any theories of who this mystery person could be ?


Update for type “Bust of Astarte-Europa” right and galloping bull with laureate head of Emperor.

Countermarks 4, 5 and 6 (image above) could be winged Victory holding sceptre.

The remaining countermarks are open for debate, still not convinced that they portray Tyche.

As of yet, there have been no further finds of this type between 68-81 A.D. Initially, i suppose we can disclude the Year of the Four Emperors (Galba, Otho, Vitelius & Vespasian) for their reign was very short lived. Titus i suppose may have commanded the minting of this type but inevitably time was also against him.

I include a collage and close up of the seven emperors that have so far been documented on these intriguing coins.

From left to right

Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero, Domitian & Trajan.

Emperors Astarte-Europa

By Coins Of The Southern Levant Posted in Arados

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